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耐磨板450组织材料的类型分析

所属分类:常见问题 发布时间:2020-11-23 14:19:52 来源:http://www.lcnmb500.com 浏览量:

hardox450耐磨板材料的性能通过合适的组织来实现,对于磨损工况条件下工作的耐磨件而言也是如此。常见的钢铁耐磨材料组织有以下几种类型.

The properties of hardox450 wear-resistant plate material are realized by proper structure, and the same is true for wear-resistant parts working under wear condition. The common wear-resistant materials of steel have the following types

(1)单一组织

(1) Single organization

hardox450耐磨板材料常见的单一组织有马氏体、贝氏体、珠光体和奥氏体。各种组织中的合金含量、含碳量不同,其耐磨性也会有较大变化。在实际生产中,由于马氏体组织硬度一般较高,具有较好的耐磨性且容易获得,使用较多。在相同硬度水平下,贝氏组织则比马氏体组织具有更高的耐磨性。因此,如何获得贝氏体组织成为目前钢铁耐磨材料研究的焦点。单一珠光体组织硬度低、磨耗高,基本上已被淘汰;单一奥氏体组织材料以高锰钢为代表,虽然硬度低,但在冲击磨损作用下会发生加工硬化而达到较高的表面硬度,因此在高冲击工况条件下也可以获得较好的耐磨性,但在冲击强度不足以使其表面充分加工硬化时并不耐磨,这己为工程实践结果所证实。

The single structure of hardox450 wear-resistant plate materials is martensite, bainite, pearlite and austenite. The wear resistance of alloy in different structures will change greatly with different content and carbon content. In practice, martensite has high hardness, good wear resistance and easy to obtain, and it is used more. At the same hardness level, bainite structure has higher wear resistance than martensite. Therefore, how to obtain bainite structure has become the focus of the research on wear-resistant materials of steel. The single pearlite has been eliminated because of its low hardness and high abrasion; The single austenite structure material is represented by high manganese steel. Although the hardness is low, it will be hardened by processing under the impact wear and achieve a higher surface hardness. Therefore, it can also obtain better wear resistance under high impact conditions, but it is not wear-resistant when the impact strength is not enough to make the surface fully hardened. This has been proved by the engineering practice.

hardox450耐磨板组织材料的类型分析(图1)

(2)复相组织

(2) Polyphase tissue

有意获得复相组织是为了改善hardox450耐磨板材料韧性、取得良好的强韧性配合,单一组织无法获得高的耐磨性。如马氏体+贝氏体组织,它们比单相马氏体韧性好,比单相贝氏体硬度高,从而其耐磨性较好。虽然从抗腐蚀性的角度来看,复相组织增加了相界面、相与相之间有电位差亦会促进电化学腐蚀,导致在有腐蚀的工况条件下的耐磨性变坏,但获得性能优良的马氏体。贝氏体复相组织仍有利于工件寿命的提高。

The purpose of the study is to improve the toughness and good toughness of hardox450 wear-resistant plate, and the single structure can not obtain high wear resistance. For example, martensite and bainite structure have better toughness than single-phase martensite and higher hardness than single-phase bainite, so they have better wear resistance. Although from the perspective of corrosion resistance, the potential difference between phases and interface increases by the complex phase structure will also promote electrochemical corrosion, which leads to the deterioration of wear resistance under the condition of corrosion, but the martensite with excellent performance is obtained. The bainite complex structure is still beneficial to the improvement of the life of the workpiece.

(3)基体+碳化物

(3) Matrix + carbide

“基体+碳化物”型组织通常有较好的耐磨性,这是因为碳化物有较高的硬度,它分布于基体中可以起支撑作用,阻挡磨粒的刺入或切削。对此类材料的设计应当遵循以下两个原则:

The "matrix + carbide" structure usually has good wear resistance, because carbide has high hardness, which can be distributed in the matrix to support and prevent the grinding particles from entering or cutting. The design of such materials shall be in accordance with the following two principles:

a)在提高hardox450耐磨板材料整体硬度时,必须考虑在组织变化允许的性况下尽可能减少基体和碳化物的硬度差。根据此原则,基体组织应当以硬度较高的马区体、贝氏体或它们的复合组织为宜。珠光体硬度较低,“珠光体+碳化物”型的高碳钢、高碳合金钢、普通白口铁等材料磨耗大、易破碎,基本上已经淘汰。但组织较细的屈氏体有较高的硬度与良好韧性的配合,可以作为一种好的基体。

a) When improving the overall hardness of hardox450 wear-resistant plate, it is necessary to consider reducing the hardness difference of matrix and carbide as much as possible under the condition of the allowable change of structure. According to this principle, the matrix structure should be made of the equine, bainite or their composite structure with high hardness. The hardness of pearlite is low, and the high carbon steel, high carbon alloy steel and ordinary white iron of pearlite + carbide type are worn and easily broken, and have been eliminated basically. But the smaller structure of the trochanter has a higher hardness and good toughness, which can be used as a good matrix.

b)在保证hardox450耐磨板材料高硬度的同时,必须考虑改善韧性。“基体+碳化物”型材料一般韧性较差,主要是由于存在碳化物的缘故,因而控制碳化物的形状、数量、分布和种类是改善材料韧性的主要手段。

b) In order to ensure the high hardness of hardox450 wear-resistant plate, it is necessary to consider improving toughness. The toughness of matrix + carbide type materials is poor, mainly due to the presence of carbides, so controlling the shape, quantity, distribution and type of carbides is the main means to improve the toughness of the materials.

(4)基体十碳化物+石墨

(4) Matrix decarbonides + graphite

基体一般为马氏体或贝氏体,石墨为球形,材料有较高的硬度。许多试验表明,球形石墨的引入可提高耐磨性的韧性。保存一定量的共晶碳化物可维持材料的高耐磨性能,但当对韧性要求更重要时,也可以不要共晶碳化物可维持材料的高耐磨性能,但当对韧性要求更重要时,也可以不要共晶碳化物,碳完全以石墨形态存在。

The matrix is generally martensite or bainite, graphite is spherical, and the material has a high hardness. Many experiments show that the introduction of spherical graphite can improve the toughness of wear resistance. The high wear resistance of the material can be maintained by saving a certain amount of eutectic carbide. But when the toughness is more important, it is also possible to avoid the high wear resistance of the material. However, when the toughness is more important, it is also possible to avoid the eutectic carbide, and the carbon is completely in the form of graphite.